SAFER Training Programme (English)

Resilience Theoretical Background – Overview

Gender-Based Violence – An Overview

Gender-based violence is increasingly recognized as a significant public health issue which has serious consequences (Williams et al., 2014). Recent research in educational settings, has shown one in three female and one in five male students (aged 12 – 18 years) disclose experience of sexual harassment victimization, whilst almost 10% report perpetration (Clear et al., 2014).


At a broader community level, traditional gender norms and social norms which are supportive of violence (e.g. where men are viewed as superior and of higher social status, ideologies of male sexual entitlement), as well as disadvantage and inequality have also been associated with the occurrence of gender-based violence (Wells et al., 2012).